m-Government: The Path from Electronic to Mobile

the bridge from e to m-Government

You access any number of government processes via the internet these days. From eFiling taxes to renewing car registration, electronic government or eGovernment is streamlining some of the most time-consuming public transactions. But this paperless solution only succeeds for those people who can get to a computer. What about those who can’t? This is where mobile government or m-Government comes in.

Embarking on the new frontier of m-Government

We are a mobile society. 1.9 billion people or approximately 25 percent of the world’s population own a smartphone or tablet or both. That number is expected to climb to 70 percent by 2020. This steep increase is due to several reasons. The first and most obvious is the desire and ability to stay connected with whomever, whenever. Mobile devices have become economic tools for many as well, allowing them to pay bills, purchase items and check balances on the go. It’s also easier to purchase a cellphone than a computer for many people. But what also makes mobile so appealing is the convenience and ability to conduct business or manage your affairs anytime anywhere. These mobile devices are a global way of connecting and their use is growing. With that comes the expectation of apps that make life easier and more efficient. The ability to create anytime access to eGovernment service is part of what has led to m-Government.

Committed to government app development

the potential information shared through m-Government

Creating apps that allow you to access the public sector is increasing. Governments are discovering that presenting an easier way to engage with their constituents makes it better for the users. It also ensures transparency between public agencies and residents. That encouragement for more open and honest communication and availability of government services comes not only from private citizens, but from lawmakers. Two examples of this are the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the federal government run General Services Administration (GSA).

UAE rewarding government innovation

The UAE is in its 4th cycle of presenting the Best M-Government Services Awards. These were created by Vice President and Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai, His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum in 2013 in order to reward those agencies best embracing m-Government. His vision of “making government available and accessible to the public 24/7 and 365 days a year” prompted the competition that kicks off in late October and announces winners at the World Government Summit in February. The contest is open to app developers worldwide to promote creating a more connected, efficient system for the public sector in the process.

GSA and the road to mobile government

The GSA is a massive resource for U.S. federal agencies and the military. It provides real estate that houses different offices, manages the nation’s fleet of public vehicles and serves as liaison between public-private partnership. One of its goals is to establish an easily accessible m-Government, which it does through its Technology division and the Mobile Program Management Office (Mobile PMO). The Mobile PMO offers m-Government based tools to assist federal agencies in presenting smarter public service to citizens. The division pursues this expansion on a national level. It supports different ways of applying mobile technology and even provides assistance to federal agencies in testing and creating their apps.

As part of this digital initiative, the agency has established 18F, which is an office within the GSA’s Technology Transformation Service. The name is a play on where the GSA is located–18 & F Street NW in Washington, D.C. Its purpose is to help “other federal agencies build, buy, and share efficient and easy-to-use digital services.” While its focus isn’t just mobile, 18F provides API key assistance to its clients. API stands for “application programming interfaces.” Basically, this is a way for different apps to communicate. API keys then then make it possible for apps to connect with your account without a password. This is an integral gateway to m-Government services. When government offices use API keys, they are then able to unlock a way to interface with a website’s information on different platforms, including mobile.

Unique opportunity for road and vehicle safety apps

Through the work of Sheikh bin Rashid of the UAE, the Mobile PMO of the GSA and others, the world is evolving its eGovernment service to include a more readily accessible experience via mobile technologies. Consequently, some of the most beneficial m-Government apps are those that support road and vehicle safety. Due to the transient nature of cars, the public sector has seen these as a natural connection to offering easy ways to access road and vehicle information. These are created to alleviate congestion, and make your drive/ride safer and easier. Here are four examples of global based transportation apps:

Hong Kong–promoting inclusion, information sharing and culture

m-Government communication in Hong Kong

The state of Hong Kong offers a rather extensive list of publicly supported apps that address a variety of m-Government needs. These range from providing new, non-native residents with information that makes navigating Chinese society easier to highlighting the life and achievements of martial arts legend, Bruce Lee. Among the transport apps are those that focus on three of the most important ground travel issues in Hong Kong–mass transit, parking for private cars, and traffic updates. Hong Kong streets are notoriously congested and these apps are alleviating the issues the city faces.

UAE–putting their vision to practice

m-Government comes alive in the UAE

As one of the leaders pursuing and promoting m-Government practices around the world, the UAE is a strong mobile presence at home, and road and vehicle safety is part of it. The 2015 winner of the University award for the Best of M-Government Services was its own NYU Abu Dhabi for Road Watch, a traffic app. The Federation struggles with a high vehicle fatality rate and it shows in the number of road and auto safety apps it makes available. These cover everything from finding parking spaces to calling up a taxi to making it easy to add money to your Nol Card–a multimodal electronic ticketing card–and Salik tag–the device mounted on the windshield to gain access to the electronic road toll system. The UAE is devoted to a more connected, transparent government and it is constantly developing and encouraging the creation of new apps to support that goal.

United Kingdom and the pursuit of safer roads

m-Government example for the U.K.

The Government of U.K. offers 57 transportation-based mobile apps out of 404 total. Public transit is a large part of the country, which is the focus of most of these–timetables, routes and so forth. There are also a sizable number of downloadables that offer information on areas or roads that have a high collision rate as well as updating on accidents that may be holding up traffic. Vehicle fatalities have increased in the country and this focus reflects the desire to address the situation.

The U.S. takes m-Government federal, state and local

U.S. take on m-Government

U.S. government mobile apps are available at the federal, state and local level. As with the other countries engaged in m-Government, the goal with all of the apps is to streamline processes for residents. It is why certain organizations were created, such as GSA’s Mobile PMO and 18F departments.

To that end, individual states have an information technology advocate in The National Association of State Chief Information Officers (NASCIO). This non-profit organization represents all of the state chief information officers in the United States. It keeps abreast of information technology innovations and how those can best be used to support and challenge the CIOs to push the digital envelope in their home states. Part of its mission is to support and encourage mobile app development across different regions to create a more transparent and seamless process for citizens. Road and automobile apps are a large part of that, especially given the latest report on U.S. traffic fatalities released by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the government’s desire to work with autonomous vehicle makers in response.

Whether it’s looking for a nearby alternative fuel station throughout the country (Alternative Fueling Station Locator) or practicing for your commercial driver license test in Wisconsin (WI DMV Commercial Driver License Practice Test), traffic/vehicle-based apps are geared toward arming residents with information that will help them safely navigate the nation’s highways. The range of traffic-based transportation apps are vast in the U.S. and often work in coordination with private companies, especially those at the municipal level.

Open government data for app development

Apps like Citymapper by Citymapper, Ltd. help you navigate and stay up to date with the mass transit systems throughout some of the world’s most complex cities. Hong Kong’s One Click by SAHK teaches social skills to children with developmental disabilities. Both are examples of public-private partnerships in government mobile app development.

Citymapper, Ltd. is a privately owned app development company that works with government agencies to gain access to infrastructure and public transportation information. The Citymapper app covers 40 cities around the world and communicates with users in 12 languages. SAHK’S One Click is available in English, Simplified and Traditional Chinese. It is listed on the Government of Hong Kong mobile apps area under “For Students of Special Educational Needs” and is part of its m-Government directory. These, like many other mobile device interfaces, exist thanks to governments opening up their data to private companies for app development.

This farming out of development helps diversify and expand the public information presented to residents in the most efficient way. The business of government is not in creating digital interfaces, just as tech companies aren’t expected to know everything about enacting policy. By the two partnering, each one gains the benefits of the other’s expertise to develop and offer more user friendly, beneficial information sharing to citizens. This linkage promotes continued app development across a variety of needs, which is the direction the entire world is moving.

The future state of Government 2020

layering on m-Government

Deloitte University Press presents an extensive look at the future of government on its Explore the Future of Government 2020 website. It evaluates future growth across two categories–Drivers and Trends–and how the two combine. Deloitte explains the difference between the two in this way: Drivers are factors “that change the context in which government operates;” Trends are “shifts that result from the drivers of change.” The information presented gives a detailed look at the unique ways these work together to create a different landscape in the next few years. This also includes the area of Transportation and the pivotal role digital and mobile play in the services and systems government offers the public.

A constantly shifting digital landscape

2020 is just a few years away and lawmakers are already realizing mobile’s potential for reaching its citizens and streamlining their lives. M-Government isn’t meant to replace but to link with eGovernment. It’s no longer a question of whether mobile applications will be embraced by public agencies, but how quickly they can be created to address the constantly changing needs of the people they serve.

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5 Lessons from Winning International eGovernment Practices

Government oversight of the automotive industry was established more than a century ago with the passing of the Vehicle Act of 1915. Despite the time between then and now, change has been slow to happen. However, the ever-increasing automation of vehicles has forced automakers and government entities to collaborate like never before in an effort to create a workable and reliable process of laws and governance in this industry. One tool that has made this collaboration more manageable and productive is eGovernment.

Over time, more governments and government agencies around the globe are embracing technology and making strides towards establishing eGovernments that provide services to and for protection of their citizens via digital channels.

Fortunately for the USA, other countries have paved the way, enacting working systems of eGovernment from which we can learn.

1. Canada: Follow a structured process

Our neighbor to the north stepped into the field of eGovernment in 1999. With the stated goal of more effectively connecting its citizens, Canada established Government On-Line (GOL) in this same year and have been following a structured process of system development ever since.

As with any change, this revamp to the status quo in government service provision provided some welcome surprises. In Canada’s case, those charged with the public administration of an eGovernment system found that conducting transactions through online portals yielded a benefit they had not considered prior—cost savings.

The secret to Canada’s success in this area has been recognizing that the establishment of an eGovernment system to support the public sector is an ongoing and structured process. Before system building began, organizers mapped out a clear path and have been following it faithfully as they strive to build upon a workable and sustainable eGovernment system.

As Canada’s entry into eGovernment has successfully evolved, public participation has grown. With this has come an increased demand for openness. Organizers have responded, shifting their focus to four critical dimensions: service, security, transparency and trust. By identifying these key components and developing services and solutions germane to them, the Canadian government has been thus far successful in building a digital connection with its citizens.

2. South Korea: Promote citizen involvement

Who in the world has the best eGovernment system? According to many UN officials, the title belongs to South Korea.

Recognizing that instituting and running an effective digital government is crucial to meeting the demands of the 21st century, South Korea has worked to establish internet-based services for federal government and local government services alike in recent years. The result is the development of a robust eGovernment infrastructure that enables its citizens to access more services online. South Korea’s “single-window” system is tremendously comprehensive, offering electronic services that range from allowing parents to check their children’s school records to providing a portal for suppliers to bid on government projects.

To be sure, building this system didn’t happen overnight. The establishment of an eGovernment system in this region is an ongoing project which formally dates back to the early 2000s.

One of the factors motivating South Korea to dedicate so many years of focus to this effort is the ability of an eGovernment system to make government more open, encouraging more active participation by citizens in its processes. With many countries struggling to find ways to engage citizens and sustain that engagement, this potential benefit is worthy of note.

3. Estonia: Create a streamlined support system

Despite the fact that Estonia regained its independence just a little over two decades ago, it has nonetheless established itself as an eGovernment powerhouse. Currently, it’s considered by many to be in tight competition with South Korea for the eGovernment crown.

What’s the secret to their success? The answer is the establishment of a comprehensive system of public services called the Information System Authority. This system seeks to serve in three prominent capacities:

  • To be the system through which the Estonian eGovernment operates
  • To maintain national cyber security
  • To digitally manage public and governmental funds

Through this integrated system, Estonians can do anything from changing their legal names to filing their taxes. This has all but eliminated the need for paper transactions, streamlining government functionality and allowing officials to be more efficient in their time usage as well as more modern in their approaches.

4. Hong Kong: Review and revise

Hong Kong’s efforts to establish and hone an eGovernment system have been data driven, and  wisely so. Much like South Korea, Hong Kong has followed a comprehensive action plan and been praised for its development of eGovernment.

The Digital 21 Strategy, which directs Hong Kong’s eGovernment efforts, was established in 1998—back when most Americans were still using dial-up.

A primary factor in Hong Kong’s success has been its willingness to revisit the plan, reviewing data in order to determine what is and is not working. With a careful eye toward repeating and building upon successful efforts, as well as abandoning duds, Hong Kong’s eGovernment system has grown in a logical, predictable and sustainable manner.

5. United Arab Emirates: Make it mobile

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been climbing the ranks, moving from 49th to 28th on the list when it comes to online government service delivery.

This country’s success stems from their bidirectional approach to creating and providing services. Individual principalities can build and implement new online services as deemed necessary in order to fit their specific needs. Meanwhile, the national government is busy building a system that meets the universalized needs of the country. With development happening on multiple fronts, the UAE has been notably successful in building a robust system in a surprisingly short period of time, offering its citizens benefits unrivaled even by many long-established countries.

One such benefit is the current development of what is being called mGovernment. Citizens of the UAE, much like those of the USA, love their smartphones. In acknowledgment of this fact, the UAE is intent on providing dedicated and secure portals through which its citizens can access government services via their smartphones.

Innovating eGovernment in the U.S.

Historically, the US has always prided itself on being a frontrunner in areas of invention, exploration and technology. What’s more, there is no question that the United States has the technological capability to implement advances in the areas of V2Gov and eGovernment on the whole. Perhaps observation of advances being made by the rest of the world, coupled with careful explanation and education on the home front, will allow the US government and its citizens to work together toward acknowledging—and eventually embracing—the convenience and benefits available through improved eGovernment and V2Gov systems.

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The Wheels Race: Adapting eGovernment to Emerging Auto Technologies

While there are many catalysts to this growth—not the least of which is public demand—one of the factors requiring the further movement of government services into the digital environment has been the growth of emerging auto technologies.

For quite some time, the government has partnered with the automotive industry in a regulatory capacity. However, due to these emerging auto technologies, the degree to which the government will need to both support and oversee this industry will only continue to grow.

There are two primary industry shifts necessitating increased involvement from eGovernment:

  • Modifications in the ways vehicles are powered
  • An increase in vehicle automation

While it will likely be some time before we stop using fossil fuels, the tide is turning on this front, with more makes and models running partially or even entirely on electricity. The benefits of this shift are obvious, since the effects of carbon emissions on the environment are now well documented. The government’s acknowledgement of this fact was affirmed with the 2009 Executive Order 13514, which demanded regular and measurable action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But the public administration of this order and global shift away from reliance on fossil fuels are no easy tasks.

The growing connectivity of contemporary cars adds to the degree in which government involvement is necessary. Today’s automobiles are just one part of the Internet of Things (IoT) network. As vehicles continue to become less reliant on people and more reliant on the internet and emerging auto technologies like autonomous and self-driving cars, adapting eGovernment to accommodate them will likewise be needed. While the current platform offers conveniences such as online fee payment and vehicle registration, it will now need to concentrate its efforts on technological advancements and policies that shape the very future of the automotive industry itself.

Energy sharing via the grid

As more vehicles begin to rely on electricity in place of typical fossil fuels, charging stations will continue to pop up around the country.

Currently, many of these charging stations are funded government projects. In California, for example, a $600-thousand state Energy Commission grant allowed for the installation of electric charging stations at locations around the state. While the rising instance of charging station implementation may be a boon for construction workers who install them, concern still remains regarding the fidelity and regularity of their use. As The Washington Times reported in 2015, many owners of electric vehicles aren’t currently utilizing these stations, creating frustration for governmental leaders who have authorized their being put in and diverted the funds necessary to do so.

Developing vehicle-to-grid technologies make powering electric cars even more sustainable and eco-friendly. Unlike a typical charging station, which is merely connected to the local power supply, one that is vehicle-to-grid enabled provides a dedicated and often cleaner method of recharging. In such a system, power sources are connected directly to charging stations, home garages and parking lots.

As technology continues to advance, the benefits of a vehicle-to-grid system increase, as well. For example, at several Air Force bases around the country, researchers are exploring two-way vehicle-to-grid charging stations where cars that need power pull from the grid while cars that have an excess give back. This technology promises to make the system even more self-sufficient and green.

Risks of vehicle connectivity

Vehicle operation has always come with risks. As emerging auto technologies become reality, the number and types of hazards drivers and pedestrians face increase proportionally. However, with careful planning, federal decision makers can go about adapting eGovernment to help mitigate these through the implementation of strategic policies, procedures and systems.

Both automotive industry professionals and government agencies have voiced concerns about how much the growing fleet of connected cars presents a tempting target to would-be hackers. While there is some disagreement as to the ease with which cars can be hacked, the threat remains prominent enough to encourage lawmakers to take action. They’ve begun collaborating with the auto industry for better protection of judicial and private citizen vehicle systems against cyber threats and malicious tampering.

Eric Friedberg, executive chairman of cyber security firm Stroz Friedberg, provided insight on the complexities associated with mitigating these hacking risks. He even recommended allocating funds for hiring individuals to try to hack into vehicle systems in order to identify and address vulnerabilities.

Issues maintaining data privacy represent yet another challenge for automakers and government officials in regards to emerging auto technologies. Modern cars are interconnected with other data-containing devices, such as mobile phones. A growing number of vehicles contain data themselves as well, which offers new channels for identity theft. Automakers are actively working to combat this new opportunity for criminal opportunists.

In fact, in January of 2016, a conglomerate of automakers was officially established voluntary standards regarding these innovations in what is known as Safety Principles for Vehicle Technologies and Services. While this is a promising start, developing a sufficiently comprehensive set of guidelines is an ongoing process, one in which legislators will undoubtedly become involved.

Still, while emerging auto technologies do create some risks, they undeniably reduce others. For instance, vehicle tracking and monitoring tools could make monitoring homeland security easier for governmental agencies. By harnessing the power of these new innovations, lawmakers may be better able to track potential criminals and avoid even large-scale terrorist attacks.

Enhanced ease of oversight

The transportation network is only as safe as the cars, trucks and buses that comprise it. For this reason, vehicle inspection—particularly of larger vehicles—has long been a government mandate.

Though the proliferation of technology related to the motor vehicle market has introduced some new complications, it has at the same time made some processes easier—especially given the growth of internet-based eGovernment. For example, with the aid of new technologies, the once tedious process of vehicle inspection has become easier and more reliable. Existing technologies allow for the rapid roadside inspection of trucks and buses, increasing the likelihood that dangerous vehicles are identified and removed from the road. The improvements cut down on the work of regulatory agencies, while at the same time lessening the drudgery for busy operators of large vehicles. Currently under development and in testing are systems that would make the same automatic vehicle inspection available to all automobiles, reports the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA).

Challenge of keeping pace

Increased consumer demand for convenience and innovation drives the IT and automotive industries to research, develop and implement new technology at a staggering rate. What’s more, there exists the ever-present motivation of profit, with large amounts of money to be made in both sectors. This steep curve puts pressure on eGovernment not only to keep up but to be proactive, anticipating future moves in both the IT and automotive industries.

What was once science fiction is now very much a reality. From testing of autonomous vehicles and connected highways to hovercrafts, new opportunities—and new dangers—will only continue to emerge. Never before has the need for government regulatory measures been so necessary, to ensure that safety of these emerging auto technologies is not sacrificed for speedy profits and that new connected conveniences are not exploited by those with nefarious intent. As such, it behooves government agencies to turn focused attention to its involvement in this rapidly escalating field of automotive technology.

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What Is E-Gov? Streamlining Government Process

Remember standing in endless lines to get your driver’s license renewed? Or the hassle of filing any important personal or business documents. Dealing with any government agency in the past was enough to send anyone straight over the edge. Well welcome to the brave new world of e-gov and the numerous benefits it offers.

E-government, or e-gov, is the use of information technology to support government operations, engage citizens, and provide government services. The immediacy of internet transactions provides for the electronic delivery of government information, programs, and services, as well as to improve the management of government, from streamlining business processes to maintaining electronic records, to improving the flow and integration of information

The ultimate goal of e-gov is to be able to offer an increased portfolio of public services to citizens in an efficient and cost effective manner. Simple tasks may be easier to perform through electronic government access. Many changes, such as marital status, address changes, or the registration of a car, can be a long process and take a lot of paper work for citizens. E-gov allows these tasks to be performed efficiently with more convenience to individuals. It is convenient and cost-effective for businesses, and the public benefits by getting easy access to the most current information available without having to spend time, energy and money to get it.

E-gov helps simplify processes and makes government information more easily accessible for public sector agencies and citizens. For example, the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles simplified the process of certifying driver records to be admitted in county court proceedings. Indiana became the first state to allow government records to be digitally signed, legally certified and delivered electronically by using Electronic Postmark technology.

In 2006, Pennsylvania became first state to make electronic vehicle titles mandatory. As of today, 23 states offer electronic vehicle registration, and that number is growing every year.

In addition to its simplicity, e-gov services can reduce costs. The anticipated benefits of e-government include efficiency, improved services, better accessibility of public services, sustainable community development and more transparency and accountability.

The e-government vision is a vision of integrated information and services. This means radical changes are needed in what happens behind the Web site that citizens see. New business processes, different information flows, changed policies, new kinds of records, advanced security measures, and new data management methods are all part of the integration story. This deeply transformational work is why leadership is so critical, and why a report from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, “Eight Imperatives for Leaders in a Networked World,” says “to be an effective leader in our networked world, you need to engage IT issues. You need to play a key role in establishing strategic direction, implementing specific projects, and formulating new public policies.”

A shift from yesterday’s static Web to the new dynamic and interactive Web is critical in simplifying and streamlining services employing ever-evolving technologies that support real-time, dynamic interactions. According to the Pew Research Center, nearly two-thirds of Americans own a smartphone today, and 19% of Americans rely to some degree on a smartphone for accessing online services and information and for staying connected to the world around them. Our world continues to evolve technologically, and now that our local, state and national government agencies have done the same, the thought of interfacing with the government has become a lot less stressful and intimidating. I’m just waiting for the “Click here To Get Married” and “Click Here To Get Divorced” apps, now that’s e-gov!

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